WASHINGTON - The Zika virus may not seem as big a threat as last summer, but don't let your guard down - especially if you're pregnant or trying to be.
Though cases of the virus known to cause birth defects have dropped sharply from last year's peak in parts of Latin America and the Caribbean, Zika hasn't disappeared from the region and remains a potential threat.
It's hard to predict how much risk people face in locales with smoldering infection, or whether cases might spike again. For now, pregnant women still are urged not to travel to countries or areas with even a few reported cases of Zika, because the consequences can be disastrous for fetal brains.
"It's part of the new reality," said Martin Cetron of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Those trying to conceive, and their partners, are advised to check with their doctors about how long to wait after visiting a place with active Zika infection.
There are lingering questions, too, about Zika's risk beyond pregnancy. U.S. scientists have begun studying babies in Guatemala to learn whether infection after birth also might damage the brain.
The challenge is getting those messages to the people who most need it when Zika is fast receding from the public radar - even as money may be drying up to track the virus and the babies it affects.
Puerto Rico and Brazil, hard-hit by Zika last year, have declared their epidemics over. But smaller numbers of infections persist around the region, according to the CDC and the Pan American Health Organization.
"Zika hasn't gone away," said CDC acting director Anne Schuchat. "We can't afford to be complacent."
In U.S. states, the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry counts 1,963 pregnant women who had lab tests showing Zika infection since officials began keeping track in 2016, and 4,107 in U.S. territories.
Since the beginning of June, 271 pregnant women have been added to the registry's Zika count, 80 in U.S. states and the rest in U.S. territories, although it's not clear when they became infected.
What about nonpregnant travelers? The CDC has counted 140 cases so far this year in the U.S., all of whom had symptoms. The vast majority of people who get Zika don't notice symptoms but are still potential spreaders of infection if mosquitoes back home bite them and then someone else. That happened late last year in parts of South Florida and Texas, and local health officials remain on alert in case it happens again.
There is no treatment for Zika.
Babies born to Zika-infected mothers can have severe brain-related defects even if the woman had no symptoms. Abnormally small heads, called microcephaly, are the most attention-getting defect. Babies also may have hearing or vision loss, seizures, trouble swallowing, or restricted limb movement. Zika infection also can lead to miscarriage or stillbirth.
What's the risk? About 1 in 20 women with Zika so far have had babies with birth defects in U.S. territories, according to the latest pregnancy registry data. The risk was higher if the mother was infected during the first trimester, but even third-trimester infections sometimes led to birth defects.
Another scary issue: Some babies appear fine at birth only to develop health problems later. What if Zika can harm newborns' still-developing brains like it does fetal brains? After all, one way Zika does its damage is by attacking developing brain cells called neural progenitor cells, and babies retain many of those for months after birth.
To find out, the National Institutes of Health funded a study in Guatemala, where Zika is still spreading, to track the health of 500 newborns and 700 children ages 1 to 5.
"Our concern is that a developing brain in early life can be impacted significantly," Flor Munoz of Baylor College of Medicine, who will help lead the study, said. "It's an important question to address, not just for children that live in the endemic areas, but also for children who travel to these areas."
In the U.S., public health advocates worry that $1.1 billion Congress approved last year to study and fight Zika is running out - including funding for a birth-defects surveillance program intended to monitor affected babies' development and connect them to health services.
That surveillance is critical for knowing what's going on, said Oscar Alleyne of the National Association of County and City Health Officials. "Otherwise, we're flying blind."
The NIH recently began the first large test of a potential vaccine, a study that aims to enroll 2,400 people in Florida, Texas, Puerto Rico, and five Zika-prone countries. There are no signs of safety problems. But if Zika infections remain at low levels, it's likely to take more than one summer of shots to prove whether the vaccine protects.
This kind of virus "almost certainly is not going to disappear completely," Anthony Fauci, director of the NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, recently told Congress.