Report: Progress slips on 'Brown'
Sixty years after the historic court ruling, many schools are heavily segregated.
Latinos are now the largest minority group in public schools, surpassing blacks. And about 57 percent attend schools that are majority Latino.
In New York, California and Texas more than half of all Latino students go to schools that are 90 percent minority or more.
For black students, the South now is the least segregated section of America. Outside of Texas, no Southern state is in the top five in terms of most segregated for black students. But more than half of black students in New York, Illinois, Maryland, and Michigan attend schools where 90 percent or more are minority.
'Brown at 60' report
Gary Orfield, codirector of the Civil Rights Project at UCLA and author of "Brown at 60" about the Supreme Court decision, says the changes revealed in the report are troubling, with many minority students receiving poorer educations than white and Asian students who tend to be in middle-class schools.
Educational policy since the 1980s has largely ignored race, he says, with an emphasis instead on accountability measures that assume equal opportunity can be achieved in separate schools.
When people ask if there is any great advantage to sitting next to a white person, Orfield said, his answer is no. "But there is a huge advantage to being in a middle-class school where most of the kids are going to go to college and almost everybody is going to graduate and you've got really good teachers who know how to get you ready for the next education step and you've got a class of other students you can learn from."
Although segregation is more prevalent in central cities of the largest metropolitan areas, it's also in the suburbs. "Neighborhood schools when we go back to them, as we have, produce middle class schools for whites and Asians and segregated high poverty schools for blacks and Latinos," he said.
Housing discrimination - stopping or discouraging minorities from moving to majority-white areas - also plays a role in school segregation and "that's been a harder nut to crack," said Sherrilyn Ifill, president of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, which argued the Brown case in front of the Supreme Court.
Advocates point to rulings by federal courts that have freed many of the schools from Brown-related desegregation orders. That, they say, is leading the country back toward more segregated schools.