Sunday, May 24, 2015

A rise in autism rates: What does it really mean?

The most recent report from the CDC estimates that one in 68 children meet criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder. What does this really mean, and what should you do if you're concerned that your child has signs of ASD?

A rise in autism rates: What does it really mean?


Today's guest blogger is Laura Dewey, Ph.D., a pediatric psychologist at Nemours/A.I. duPont Hospital for Children, and an sssistant professor of pediatrics at Jefferson Medical College.

The word “autism” is scary to anyone, especially caregivers, and hearing that it is “on the rise” can be especially alarming. The most recent report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that one in 68 children meet criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (referred to as ASD, the most up-to-date name for the neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication and repetitive, restricted patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities). This is about 30 percent higher than the previous 2012 report from the CDC.

There is ongoing debate as to why there has been an increase in ASD prevalence; some say that this is a result of better awareness and diagnosis, some say the diagnosis is given more freely in order to access services, and some say that these factors cannot fully account for the increase.

The CDC report does point out that, over the past decade, there have been a growing number of children diagnosed with ASD with average intellectual abilities. This might mean that kids who had been considered “quirky” or “socially awkward” several years ago are now found to meet criteria for ASD. Often, this conceptualization is helpful for families to address strengths and weaknesses, and it can allow schools and treatment teams to know how best to support a child in reaching their full potential.

Although “autism” is scary, there are a few things about ASD that caregivers should keep in mind that can help ease their fears. To begin, we don’t know what causes ASD. It’s likely a combination of factors, including genetic and environmental, that caregivers, for the most part, don’t have control over. So worrying too much about ASD isn’t needed – if it’s there in your child, there’s no way you could have prevented it.

Additionally, we know that early, behavior-based intervention as soon as possible (hopefully before age 5!) is the best thing we can do to help all children with ASD reach their full potential. When children are young, their brains are still developing, and behavior-based interventions that expand social flexibility and functional communication have been shown to improve social, functional, cognitive, and communication outcomes.

So what should caregivers do? First, caregivers should know the early signs of ASD so that they can monitor their child’s development. It’s just like making sure they are eating the right foods or getting enough sleep – we want to make sure they’re also meeting their social and communication milestones, such as making eye contact, smiling at other people, and using babbling or words to communicate their needs and ideas. CDC’s “Learn the Signs. Act Early.” program is an excellent place to start, as it provides behaviors to watch for and resources to access if parents are concerned.

Second, if you are worried at all, talk to professionals you trust. Your pediatrician is a great place to start. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends developmental screening at months 9, 18, and 30, and ASD-specific screening at months 18 and 24 or if concerns are noted by caregiver or pediatrician. So don’t be afraid to speak up, and definitely do not take a “wait and see approach.” Ask for referrals to professionals specializing in ASD to make sure your concerns are addressed thoroughly.

And last, remember that all children have strengths and weaknesses. Just because we have a “label” for ASD doesn’t change a child – it just gives us more information to understand them and help them grow.

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About this blog
The Healthy Kids blog is your window into the latest news, research and advice around children's health. Learn more about our growing list of contributors here.

If you have questions about your child's health, ask them here.

Anna Nguyen Healthy Kids blog Editor
Sarah Levin Allen, Ph.D., CBIS Assistant Professor of Psychology at Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine
Stephen Aronoff, M.D., M.B.A. Chair of the Department of Pediatrics at Temple University Hospital
Peter Bidey, D.O. Medical Director of Family Medicine at Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine
Christopher C. Chang, MD, PhD, MBA, FAAAAI, FACAAI Associate Professor of Medicine in division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology at UC Davis
Katherine K. Dahlsgaard, Ph.D. Lead Psychologist of The Anxiety Behaviors Clinic at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Gary A. Emmett, M.D., F.A.A.P Director of Hospital Pediatrics at TJU Hospital & Pediatrics Professor at Thomas Jefferson Univ.
Magee DeFelice, M.D. Division Chief of Allergy and Immunology at Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Hazel Guinto-Ocampo, M.D. Chief of Pediatric Emergency Services at Nemours duPont Pediatrics/Bryn Mawr Hospital
Rima Himelstein, M.D. Adolescent Medicine Specialist at Crozer-Keystone Health System
Jessica Kendorski, PhD, NCSP, BCBA-D Associate Professor in School Psychology/Applied Behavior Analysis at Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine
Anita Kulick President & CEO, Educating Communities for Parenting
Janet Rosenzweig, MS, PhD, MPA VP for Programs & Research for Prevent Child Abuse America
Beth Wallace Smith, R.D. Registered Dietitian at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Emiliano Tatar, M.D. Pediatrician at Einstein Healthcare Network Roxborough Plaza
Jeanette Trella, Pharm.D Managing Director at The Poison Control Center at CHOP
W. Douglas Tynan, Ph.D., ABPP Director of Integrated Health Care for American Psychological Association
Flaura Koplin Winston, M.D., Ph.D. Scientific Director of the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia’s Center for Injury Research and Prevention
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